This post is also available in: Português
We live in a fast-paced world where IoT Connectivity is becoming the standard.
Nowadays it is becoming challenging to get a clear picture of what is new and what is still relevant since network technology has evolved tremendously.
The Internet of Things is expanding at a rapid rate, with 148 new devices connecting to the Internet every second.
The technology landscape is continuously improving, and with the fifth generation of technology scheduled to be in effect in 2020.
It is only natural to see the increase of interest in this type of technology.
The Internet of things has many challenges to overcome. We need to establish a secure connection.
While being able to provide and process critical physical data.
Using the cloud’s ability to deliver better solutions to various industries is a valuable opportunity for many players in the sector.
Most companies focus on the Internet of Things and the integration of their products and services.
In the past, a 2G user would be satisfied with the capabilities of his machine to machine communications.
IoT communications need to able to transfer data, even with a low transfer rate and ample power to send limited packets without interfering with other devices.
Companies That Sell IoT Devices or Services Need to Adapt Fast
The impact of these transitions can be significant for companies selling IoT products or services.
Companies depended for many years on the country to choose communication providers, and often the most relevant national or local player was the default choice.
There were even some who sought feedback from process integrator’ providers, often with similar results.
What happens is that, as IoT becomes more important in the final analysis, companies should re-evaluate their connectivity needs and make more nuanced choices that take into account global coverage, smart switching, service delivery, pricing, security, and IoT experience.
Present and Future of IoT Landscape
Now everything has changed with the introduction of smartphones; the leading industry players offer high-capacity bandwidth to satisfy the public demand.
We see the same tendencies in the IoT sector in which we can see a similar influx of low-energy traffic.
Mobile connectivity is much more than just performance.
From augmented reality glasses to self–driving cars, we are witnessing the shift to the integration of this technology into our lives.
Nearly every aspect of our lives is being affected by the way we interact with this technology.
From every industry from healthcare to commerce, we see massive adoption of new solutions.
However, the most common need for this technology is bandwidth.
This type of technology is extremely complex and needs to move large quantities of data in which one second is the time required to process 1 GB of data.
The technology adoption is so vast that we are even seen farms adopting wireless IoT sensors that can transmit information about the soil moisture and nutrients.
We can see that agricultural experts across the country are implementing new strategies to maximize the productivity of the fields.
We have seen technology integrated from a variety of devices such as batteries, alarm systems, fitness devices, packed devices, and many other different applications.
Although those applications center on various factors, one of the characteristics that they share the most is the dependency on reliable connectivity.
IoT Industry Most Significant Challenges
Therefore, the industry needs to solve the most significant challenges they currently face – scalability and connectivity.
Solving those two problems will be vital for the long-term growth of IoT networks and the underlying dependent technologies.
Industries need to start improving network longevity, reliability, and scalability.
The Primary Role of Network Providers
For IoT devices to work correctly, they need to rely on an active network that can support scalability on a broad level.
Network providers must do their parts and improve support for the next generation of IoT devices.
The primary protocol used by the majority of network providers called Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) must be more widely adopted and improve to maximize network reliability.
STP can vastly improve the network reliability because of its ability to eliminate bridge loops in Ethernet Local Area Networks (LANs), which in turn prevents network loops.
The main concern is when this protocol fails, it can be extremely time-consuming to troubleshoot subsequent problems.
It is incredibly challenging for many IoT technologies to pinpoint the problem, especially in industries where time is in essence, like, for example, the healthcare and the autonomous vehicle industry.
Many leaders in the IoT sector and even some network providers are searching for alternatives to STP.
Many experts in the industry suggest that utilizing SPB is the better solution because it delivers loop-free multi-pathing and network consolidation while sustaining high scalability while maintaining reliability.
On the other hand, other industry experts defend the use of MLAG because it can extend link redundancy and active-active load shares that use the full bandwidth, which makes this a cost-effective protocol.
The Future of IoT Is Still A Mystery
Everything evolves so fast in the wild world of IoT communications it can be challenging to clear the trends and see what is and what is not any longer relevant.
Not only has this technology has been practically designed just for the IoT, but it has seamless integration, throughout standardization.
Designed for hard to reach local areas and indoor usage, NB-IoT is a fantastic technology.
A great benefit of this technology is that it allows for a connection with the device at the minimal energy requirement level.
It is allowing a higher number of methods to be able to connect to the network.
The technology is perfect for connecting thousands of automatic meters since the motors that support the network are battery-powered, not limited by access to a power grid.
It is the ideal solution to monitor containers, parking sites, farm animals, etc.
There is a wide range for its use with the added benefit that is a very low-cost and highly autonomous system.
Business Motivation for Starting, Investing and Operating with the Most Recent IoT Technologies
Since our economy is deeply dependent on technology, and people are becoming more dependent on their devices.
We need to have a strong adoption of new IoT technologies that can satisfy all the requirements of all types of vertical market goals, for example, markets, and consumer markets.
For that to be able to be sustainable, we need to have a model with a solution that provides the possibility of operating in vertical industries while delivering services.
Businesses need to maximize productivity.
Furthermore, they will need to implement cloud and analytics solutions to monetize a large portion of the value in IoT.
There is a massive potential in IoT applications to generate moderate to high revenue.
With data resources, operators have the potential to improve their communication infrastructure to open another significant source of new income using IoT technologies.
IoT Industries Can Focus on Three Main Categories Based on Usage and Client Base:
Industrial IoT includes devices that co like, for example:
- Wastewater systems, pipeline monitors, manufacturing robots, and many other types of industry-related tools and systems.
- Consumer IoT includes devices that range for a bride variety such as smart cards, laptops, entertainment systems, smartphones, etc.
- Commercial IoT includes merchandise device that records, inventory control systems and connected medical devices.
In such an interconnected world, IoT is becoming an integrated part of our lives and environments, whether we are consciously using them or not.
As a result of this interconnectivity, the gathering of information presents legal and regulatory challenges that people need to know.
Also, we need technologies that can satisfy consumer demand while not losing focus on inventing — and reintegrating new beneficial features and capabilities to improve the use of technology.
No doubt connecting so many different devices will be a big challenge for the future of the IoT industry.
But it’s also a tremendous opportunity for innovative solutions that will improve other sectors in the industry.
IoT a Nascent Innovative Tendency
Today, IoT is still an emerging innovation, but it has an evolutionary path that leads back to the early years of the last century, according to the ITU A brief history reminder of telemetry origin, M2M, and IoT According to the ITU, IoT is still an emerging innovation.
But according to the ITU, it has an evolutionary trail that goes back to the beginning of the last century.
In 1912, we can recall the legacy of the recent IoT revolution when, in Chicago, a telemetry system was developed to monitor network loads over urban phone lines.
In 1930, the next major milestone, wireless telemetry via radio transmissions rather than landline infrastructure, was overtaken and used to monitor the weather.
When Sputnik was launched in 1957, aerospace telemetry was also introduced.
- The broadly acknowledged event in 1957 was the precursor of modern satellite communications.
- The M2M was still a few years away, waiting for two significant advances in three decades to propel it into the mainstream.
In 1995, there were a lot of improvements in the field of computer communications.
Siemens revolutionized the industry when it launched M1, a GSM data module for machines to communicate over wireless networks — creating a vast amount of opportunities for a wide variety of connectivity technologies.
The Federal Communications Committee’s promise to use spectrum-efficient digital networks in analog networks paved the way for broader adoption of mobile M2M technology.
With this extensive chain of machine-to-machine connectivity, IoT is the latest mutation.
Both methods share the same principles, but there are some significant differences.
Current data indicates that IoT devices will be between 22 and 25 billion devices by 2025.
A wide variety of connectivity technologies are now available for various IoT applications with a variety of features.
The Fantastic Applications of IoT Classic Connectivity Technologies
We need to understand the market and the evolution of several technologies (such as Thread, ZigBee, and Z-Wave).
These short-range solutions are ideal for restricted environments, such as smart homes.
Should the shortest range appear to be a restriction, then these solutions allow high bandwidth transmission with low power consumption.
Unfortunately, some solutions cannot be explicitly designed for IoT.
In contrast, until the inclusion of a long-distance transfer, this need can remain a critical platform on a broader hybrid IoT environment.
Wireless Protocol Non-Cellular IoT Technology
Using a wireless protocol connection connects battery-powered ‘things’ to the Internet, enabling secure, mobile, affordable, and low-power, two–way communication.
The implementation of LoRa Alliance member’s Semtech chips was one of the arguments challenging the technology‘s open standards credential.
Most recently, though, other suppliers have announced their interest in LoRa radio technology.
Concerning LPWAN technologies, some other players offer they in house technologies, such as LinkLabs and Weightless SIG.
LoRaWAN and Sigfox, which account for almost two-thirds of low-power networks in large areas, dominate the market.
In any case, their cellular IoT counterparts with technologies such as NB-IoT and LTE-M have a significant challenge.
Mobile IoT Networks Cellular – Mobile IoT
In Brazil, two mobile IoT networks are ideal for low-cost, low-power, long-range IoT applications, and together can meet the full spectrum of LPWAN requirements in a variety of industries and applications.
With the introduction of the MulteFire Alliance, a global consortium aimed at extending the benefits of LTE to the unlicensed range, there has been a significant development in the LTE-IoT market.
The Group further evolves with MulteFire LTE technology under these standards, according to 3GPP standards, but operates within the unlicensed or shared band.
With the clear goal to mix the advantages of LTE and the ease of deployment.
The technology is relatively easier to design and deploy than conventional mobile modules.
With that in mind, LTE technology improves network capacity.
It also boasts efficiency to support a large number of low power connections in the 200KHz range to a new level.
An NB-IoT technology can be much cheaper to implement than other technologies.
It eliminates the need for portals for direct communication with the primary server.
The portals that allow 5G use cases and will coexist with other 5G 3GPP technologies.
The process of implementation of 5 G has already begun seriously.
After the release of 5G services in South Korea and the United States at the beginning of this year, it is expected that another 16 markets will enter 2018.
Many industry innovations are required to streamline the emergence of 5G.
The fifth generation of wireless mobile communications is coming, and it will undoubtedly have a significant impact on its delivery.
By changing the way, we interact with devices.
Thanks to increased capacity, lower latency, and promise of energy/cost savings, these fifth-generation networks have the potential to provide support for more innovative and bandwidth-intensive applications and mass communication between machines.
1,600 Satellites Dedicated to IoT
While this may seem like a niche market, some reports indicate that in the next five years, there will be up to 1,600 IoT satellites.
Every technology we’re discussing here has its USPs and constraints.
Each IoT application has its data rate requirements, latency, deployment costs, and so on.
For one case, a perfectly functional protocol can be unsuitable for another.
Thus, neither the application nor the industry can prescribe a single protocol of all sizes.
Maintaining just one technology standard does not make sense in many implementations of the Internet of Things, and this according to Sigfox.
The single-contract idea that helps enterprises decrease complexity because the responsibility for global coverage lies with the provider, not the IoT device and other service providers.
With the MNO or MVNO, businesses can also better understand the use of their data because they have a single platform to monitor it.
MNO or MVNO for Strong Intelligent-Switching Solutions
A large number of suppliers are investigating two relatively new smart switching technologies.
The smart mobile switch allows IoT devices to move from one MNO or MVNO to another in the first case.
This capability is still uncommon for IoT devices.
The process is complex but needed to improve network communication.
Smart switching of platforms enables devices to switch between unlicensed, cellular, and mobile platforms — the process based on data transmission requirements as well as other factors.
The process has tremendous flexibility.
Even without IoT devices capable of switching platforms, some companies increase their investments in this field.
Mobile device switching can take different forms.
It keeps roaming charges below those with other service providers through bilateral agreements.
IoT protocols are the IoT system language.
Every language needs extra time to develop, so that is can meet the demands of its users.
One thing is certain; IoT protocols are designed to better adapt to industrial networks and their users’ needs.
And that is the driving factor that shapes the market.
More and more IoT protocols have been developed over the years.
One of the defining factors when the ‘how’ behind an IoT system is a problem, i.e., the type of communication protocol used by the system.
Early decision making about the right protocol is critical to building a successful connected product.
Any choice of network protocol will affect the design and entire IoT system of your connected product.
PAN for Personal Devices – Personal WiFi Connectivity
Generally, a PAN depends on Bluetooth or WiFi to connect to a variety of personal devices, such as a printer, laptop, media system, etc.
The Good Old LAN – Local Area Network Technology
As its name implies, a LAN is also a relatively small network that many of us have great memories.
In the 90s, the only way to play a great game with friends was at a Lan house.
Lan connections in our days typically cover a home or office area using wireless or cable technology.
VPN – Virtual Private Network
In the most frequent cases, we want to restrict access to the network and at the same time, allow authorized users to access the network from remote locations.
If you want to stay safe online, you should use VPNs.
Not only they allow us to increase our security by encrypting the connection processes.
They hide your navigation from preying eyes.
MANs – Metropolitan Area Network
Microwave transmission is a conventional technology employed by MANs, supported by dedicated microwave antennas.
Network connectivity configurations are described as typologies based on their connectivity configurations.
Connectivity of Mesh Networks in Industrial IoT
Mesh Networks in Industrial IoT reduces maintenance costs and helps avoid communication problems.
To avoid common connectivity problems, Mesh Networks Data has more than one path to travel between two points.
That way, it doesn’t need to pass through the hub delivering flexibility — improving fundamental elements and streamlining the process.
Also, mesh networks prove to be an excellent and accessible solution for IoT.
IoT Network Topologies IoT and Internet Protocols
With the fundamental elements out of the way, let us look at expanding our connectivity ecosystem.
Client-Server Communication – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
In the 1970s, the Advanced Defense Research Projects Agency developed TCP/IP in the United States.
It was created for use in the Unix operating system in ARPANET, a pre-existing web-based WAN. TCP/IP is based on a client-server communication model that a user receives from a server on the same network service, such as a loaded web page.
TCP/IP is divided into four layers, each with its own protocol set.
IoT Devices IPv6 – Internet Layer Becoming Standart
IPv6 handles the use of addresses to route network message packets. At this layer, IPv6 is the most commonly used protocol for IoT devices.
- IPv6 ensures the use of addresses for network routing message packets.
- IPv6 is the most commonly used protocol for IoT device connectivity at this layer.
OSI – Open System Interconnection Ensures Great Connectivity
OSI is a TCP/IP successor, and both are often compared since the models have multiple parallelisms to each other.
The Application Layer Identifies Nodes
The layer should not be confused with the actual application but provides several services that an application can use.
For example, the application layer identifies nodes that seek to communicate actively.
The procedure assesses whether these nodes are ready to send or receive data.
And in turn, simplifies and aids in sending and opening the actual data file, improving the process.
Improving the Transport Layer Process
In a simplified way, the packing process allows the transport layer to check for errors in the communication process, which is necessary for handling the Transmission Control Protocol efficiently.
The Transport Layer services also handle the Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol as in the Session Layer.
Network Layer Serving as a Logistics Hub for Data
The Network Layer Serving as a Logistics hub for data routing and address assignment.
That way, the process ensures that packets reach their correct destination.
After that, the IP handles network Layer activities on the Internet and assign data routing and address assignment.
Ethernet the Data Link Layer
Hardware Used to Receive Data Over the Network the Physical Layer
In essence, it is a layer that describes the hardware used to send and receive data over the network.
It is commonly applied through electrical wiring, fiber optics, or some wireless connectivity devices.
IoT Connectivity Standards on Common Protocols
After addressing the fundamental anatomy of connected systems, let’s extend the networks developed explicitly for Industry 4.0.
MQTT – Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
MQTT is a light and easy to implement a messaging protocol, also known as the “SCADA protocol.”
Excellent Interoperability – AMQP – Advanced Message Queuing Protocol
Surprisingly AMQP is packed with additional features that enable excellent interoperability across a wide range of messaging applications with efficiency and security.
CoAP – Constrained Application Protocol
Specifically designed to connect small feature devices, such as low memory or short battery life.
Different extensions for use with CoAP are designed with additional features that can reduce time transfers and Group various CoAP features.
IPv6 Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network
WPAN gives IoT connectivity to low power devices.
RPL – Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
The RPL is a well-known optimized routing protocol fantastic for IoT connectivity to low power devices’ wireless sensor networks.
BLE – Bluetooth Low Energy
This protocol is a well-known Bluetooth protocol with several different features.
The protocol saves energy and is typically used for IoT devices in a star configuration between a range of less than 100 m.
In wearable IoT devices, the BLE is a popular choice, especially for consumers like fitness trackers.
Widely Used Bluetooth
Like WiFi technology, Bluetooth has been widely used as a high bandwidth connection for wearable devices in consumer electronics.
In contrast, unlike WiFi, Bluetooth uses less power and takes much less time to connect two devices.
The technology is a popular choice used not only in IoT-related consumer electronics but also in industrial electronics.
Industrial environments started to track internal assets, where the range is minimal because it is a good option for many other smart indoor applications.
GPS asset tracking is not an option due to its easy configuration and low signal interference in busy environments.
The Low Power Wide Area Network should be based on cellular communication as a distinct IoT connectivity technology.
For IoT connectivity, the network meets a very different set of requirements than the traditional mobile network.
One of the critical features of LPWAN is the new International Connectivity Standard for an intelligent, functionally controlled, large area, power-efficient device systems.
The enormous potential for technology in the low-power area is leading global network operators to develop their solutions.
Besides, this, in turn, is beneficial for the growing Industrial Internet of Things, as the economy and convenience of this technology enable more and more IoT applications.
A fantastic option, Zigbee technology, offers a set of connectivity protocols and hardware specially designed to be a cheaper solution for Bluetooth.
Despite its limits for low data speeds and a short-range, Zigbee is used with specifications that fall within these constraints for both consumer and industrial applications.
The vast majority of NFC applications include applications on smartphones or other mobile devices.
NFC applications such as payment systems, access cards, and e-tickets use a set of connectivity protocols and hardware specially designed for security and speech.
Electromagnetic Signals – Radio Frequency Identification
RFID technology uses electromagnetic signals to detect chips that contain information about electronically stored objects.
RFID chips can be used as powered or passive chips and, since they operate on radio frequencies, a direct line between the tag and the reader is not required.
For wireless IoT connectivity over a LAN, WiFi technology allows the use of IEEE802.11 standards.
WiFi will likely decline in popularity with improved power consumption and broader ranges of alternative wireless protocols.
With Ethernet technology, Ethernet is based on IEEE 802.3 and is widely used in LAN construction.
For an IoT network not to need to be wireless, an IoT system can be built on existing power cable networks via Ethernet.
Protocol Range Transmission
For short-distance transmission, the use of a protocol designed for short-distance transmission is not appropriate if your project requires long-distance communication.
Conversely, short protocols may be useful in cases where the physical extent of the communication is limited to security.
The Volume of Data Over a Certain Period – Bandwidth
We all hate when our Internet Provider charges us for additional bandwidth.
That extra amount of data that can be transferred from one site to another over a certain period can be prohibitive.
In the case of each log type, the size of the packets for the data transmission is set automatically.
Connected Device Interoperability
Typically, a connected device, application, or sensor can communicate with another manufacturer or host.
As technology progresses, our systems must be backward compatible to avoid obsolete components.
Flexibility is expected since the interoperability of IoT protocol connectivity is needed for most device connectivity.
The ability to be able to integrate elements that do not belong to the same manufacturer, for example, is vital.
Bandwidth and Data Rate
Data Rate is the data transmitted in Kbps or Mbps over the network.
The parameter is closely related to bandwidth and distance and is, of course, a critical variable.
We want our data to be transmitted on our IoT system with optimal latency.
IoT networks are protected in many ways, including encryption, authentication, and port protection, thanks to advances in security technology.
A device’s consumed power when data transmission occurs.
IoT Connectivity Scalability
IoT Scalability is the ability of the protocol to continue as the network expands into a variety of connected devices.
It would be best if you remembered that your system is likely to grow when you select an IoT connectivity protocol.
With this scalability, you’re assured of high-level maintenance of the quality and responsiveness of your network when adding devices.
Integrated connectivity is at the heart of the Internet of Things:
Multiple devices collect and transfer data from one another, to cloud computing – but also to people who make strategic choices using data-driven information.
According to experts’ predictions, by 2020, 20-50 billion active devices and components in their respective IoT ecosystems will be connected everywhere.
This requires a high level of compatibility, reliability, and security of connected devices.
Misconception Strong service-delivery capabilities
Since IoT devices are just beginning to gain traction, an outage can appear as a minor problem when mobile users lose cellular coverage.
This misconception can lead to a minimization in quality of service and a focus on costs when choosing a solution.
Misconception Strong Service-Delivery Capabilities
Since IoT devices are just beginning to gain traction, an outage can appear as a minor problem when mobile users lose cellular coverage.
This misconception can lead to a minimization in quality of service and a focus on costs when choosing an IoT solution.
Do You Want to Know More About the Internet of Things and its Implementation?
Soon, companies recognized that deficient services could destabilize their emerging IoT offerings.
One of the main reasons for this is that connected car drivers who lose online navigation in remote regions probably don’t blame the IoT provider for the company that sells the IoT device.
Innovation and investment in the latest technologies, including eUICCs, are one of the best providers of IoT.
You can request customized contracts with specific key performance indicators with a better option.
All enterprises are at risk of a catastrophic event, and IoT can lead to a general downturn of 1,000 devices.
Contracts must, therefore, reflect these hazards, including risk and contingency plans.
Evaluating Options Customized Pricing
Most businesses opt for a standard plan when assessing their options, rather than a customized offering, as their connectivity and usage requirements are unknown.
Developing a custom pricing plan may sound daunting, but it can help with a straightforward approach.
During the first step, enterprises must decide how employees use IoT devices and how customers use their IoT–enabled products in their organization.
By now, you have the perfect notion that firms should focus on analysis related to internal operations, customer needs, or both.
Based on the data conclusions, the companies can then classify their organization into one of three categories.
- Roaming and connectivity obligations and the need to protect against excess demand may vary within each category.
- This monstrous technology, which combines virtual products into a bright future, attracts players and unlimited investments in the marketplace.
- Even if areas of improvement can be found in all aspects of Internet deployment involving the IT interface, in connectivity, things seem to be guaranteed.
And Which Communication Option is Best for Developing Your IoT Program?
With the ability to recognize your project requirements at every stage of your deployment and a deep understanding of your specific IoT applications, you’ll have great help in selecting the best connectivity network for your intelligent business.
To identify the trade-offs of the most widespread network technologies, we investigated the most popular Internet of Things connectivity solutions.
The critical issue is that those challenges cannot rely just on the network providers alone.
IoT vendors have to have a significant role in implementing those features by providing infrastructures and facilitating more substantial innovation in the area.